Thursday, March 12, 2020

Social Institutions of the Family(Notes) Essay Example

Social Institutions of the Family(Notes) Essay Example Social Institutions of the Family(Notes) Essay Social Institutions of the Family(Notes) Essay The Social institution of the family There are various types of Caribbean family forms. The emergence of the different types was largely due to historical influences that shape Caribbean civilization. Caribbean society has grown into a cosmopolitan mixture of different races and ethnic groups that construct their reality in the Caribbean. This mixture has resulted in a unique social system; plural, polarized, politicised, problematic, but still some what plantation society. This has impacted the type of family units that emerged in the region. The roles expectations by Caribbean society of mother and father coupled with the different socialization of boys and girls have influenced the many structural ways in which families are built and maintained in the Caribbean. This also affects issues related to gender construction in the family. The ever increasing proportion of matrifocal and common law unions are products of history as well as other social trends that are both local and international in scope. Family forms in the Caribbean A family can be defined as a social unit of common residence involving two adults who are in a sexual relationship. Children of either of the adults, from both, or who have been adopted also form part of this family unit. The most popular family forms in the Caribbean are: The family based on common-law union (consensual cohabitation) The nuclear family The family based on a visiting union (extra-residential) The matrifocal family The extended family The East Indian family Other family types are sibling families due largely to migration of parents, and grandparent-headed families. What are the reasons for the existence of the various family forms in the region? Some theorists such as Melville  Herskovits (1958) attribute the prevalence of certain types of Caribbean family forms to African society and some of the social institutions and social dynamics of those societies. The nuclear family The domestic unit of husband, wife, and child or children is regarded by many people in the Caribbean as the ideal family structure that comes into being ith the marriage of the partners. However where the nuclear family was established in the Caribbean, its existence as a small domestic unit did not always last very long, even among the middle and upper classes in these societies. The family based a common-law union The common law union is another type of domestic unit with the same basic relationships as those in the nuclear family, that is, adults are united in an ongoing bond but the bond is not based on the family as faithful concubinage (T. S Simey, 1946). To all intents and purposes the spouses are committed to each other sexually, they raise children in a stable relationship and the family functions as an economic unit. Because of the prevalence of this type of union and the existence of the relationship that it brings into being on the birth of children, several Caribbean governments have given legal recognition to these unions. Caribbean countries such as Jamaica, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago and Antigua have passed legislation that affords the children of such union legitimate status as heirs to family property. Common law unions have also been known to exist for many years without persons in the community being aware that the union has not been made legal with a wedding ceremony. The family based on a visiting union A frequent occurrence in the Caribbean is the domestic unit of a woman and her child or children. In this family form, the mother and her child or children live separately but may be visited from time to time by a man with whom she shares a relationship similar to that of a spouse. The man may or may not be the father of the child or children. Quite often such a visiting union begins with a young woman being impregnated while still living in the household of her mother or parents. RT. Smith (1956) in his work on low income black families in Guyana noted the following: â€Å"It does nor by any means follow that a man will be expected to marry the girl. He will certainly be expected to support the child if he is able, and he may continue his attachment to the girl and other children be born. † R. T. Smith (1956), The Negro Family in British Guiana p. 138. Smith further stated that the relationship may eventually lead to the establishment of a common-law union. The woman, in order to take care of herself and her children, may then start a sexual relationship with another man and thus may end up having several children with different men. Financial burden and emotional strain of raising children arising from such unions can be quite overwhelming. The Matrifocal family In Caribbean society, the matrifocal family is the term used to describe unit in which women are the focal point. You may also see this form of family referred to as the ‘female headed household’ in some literature. In this form of family adult males are absent from the family unit or if they are present their role in domestic routines is marginal. A woman is usually the head of the household or family unit. This type of family structure is so armed because power and authority tend to reside in the female head. However, there, are some domestic units in which females are responsible only for a day-to-day running of the affairs of the family. Males as lovers or brothers, or fathers of the children may be the ones who make the crucial decisions about major financial undertakings or schooling for the children. Thus, absence of a male head may not necessarily mean absence of male authority. The East Indian Family The East Indian family units which  are prevalent in Guyana and Trinidad  and Tobago are also the result of plantation society and the introduction of indentureship  at the end of the slavery period. These family units are horizontally extended  as the East Indians seek to maintain their sense of community and kinship bonds that are influenced by their religion. East Indians maintained, initially, most of their family traditions. Over time, some of these traditions have been creolized while some have changed alongside social changes being pursued in post-colonial Indian societies. Endogamy still persists as well as some forms of horizontal family forms. However, these are changing as the strong traditions of colonial India lose their grip on some Indo-Caribbean social institutions. The movement away from the extended family household by the younger generation of East Indians will also affect other Indian institutions over time. Why the diversity? Researchers have offered a wide range of arguments concerning diversity within the family in the Caribbean. Three viewpoints put forward: cultural retention, plantation system of slavery and socioeconomic factors and the culture of poverty Cultural retention and family diversity Melville Herskovits (1958) in The Myth of the Negro Past, was one of the first to trace the development of Caribbean families to the African origins of the slaves who to the Americas. Herskovits believed that despite attempts to strip African slaves of their cultural heritage, the practice of polygyny was retained from African culture. Where polygyny existed, the basic unit for affective bonding and closeness was the mother and child or children. The husband/ father were somewhat marginal in this unit. Herskovits maintained that this pattern has persisted Caribbean society and culture, especially among lower class people of African descent in the Caribbean. Plantation system of slavery M. G Smith (1962) wrote that under plantation slavery, stable families were not give a chance to develop. Unions of whatever sort were often broken up as slaves and were sold. The unit of mother and child or children was less likely to be torn apart than the man/wife/children unit. Male slaves were also denied property and family rights, and a system of female centeredness emerged and developed. Males therefore tended to be marginal to family units and this marginalization from family meant that slave children were property of white slave masters. Socio-economic factors and the culture of poverty The proponents of this approach including Oscar Lewis argue that poverty of low in come families of African origin in the Caribbean and the Americas prevents the males from making the financial contributions that they ought to and as a consequence the find it difficult to meet their family responsibilities as husbands and fathers. Overtime, matrifocality becomes an accepted pattern of family living and family relationships. It becomes a feature of the subculture of poverty. Lewis conducted his study in the urban areas of Puerto Rico and Mexico. He argued that the presence of matrifocality is transmitted from one generation to the next. Further, the urban environment encourages unstable family unions due to a number of socioeconomic factors such as unemployment and poverty. Males tend to desert the home because of inability to effectively carry out the bread winner role. The absence of regular employment that women are forced to enter successive relationships with a number of different males in order to subsist. Each male may father a child or two before deserting the woman and her family. Edith Clarke in her study ‘My Mother Who Fathered Me’ illustrates the combined effects of class and region/locality on family forms. Clarke’s comparative study of three towns in Jamaica suggests that families in affluent urban areas are more likely to be nuclear. Those in rural and urban slums are more prone to be visiting union, common-law or matrifocal. The primary reason noted is wealth and statusnstitutions of the

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Case study aristotle Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Aristotle - Case Study Example He does not have much patience for theory for its own sake and neither do I. In my own life I try to ask the question, â€Å"Will it work in practice?† or â€Å"How do I do this?† I am much less interested in what is theoretically good or bad, and when I read Aristotle I see that he was similarly interested in the practical side of ethics rather than the theoretical side of things. In the world we live in so much of ethical thinking and philosophy is incredibly theoretical. Doctrines are written by academics who seem to have never left their ivory towers. They talk about symbols and dreams—but almost never about real people and real world concerns. They always describe an ideal world or a person they call the â€Å"Rational man.† In my own experience the world is not ordered in such a way that it can be useful to study exclusively theory. When we think of ethics, such an important part of our day to day lives, we don’t have time for theory. We need to know how to be good. Learning why we should be good, or what goodness truly means, or if goodness actually exists independently from any of us is much less important. With those who identify happiness with virtue or some one virtue our account is in harmony; for to virtue belongs virtuous activity. But it makes, perhaps, no small difference whether we place the chief good in possession or in use, in state of mind or in activity. For the state of mind may exist without producing any good result, as in a man who is asleep or in some other way quite inactive, but the activity cannot; for one who has the activity will of necessity be acting, and acting well. And as in the Olympic Games it is not the most beautiful and the strongest that are crowned but those who compete (for it is some of these that are victorious), so those who act win, and rightly win, the noble and good things in life. It is possible to think deep thoughts about what is goodness and do nothing that is good.

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Consumer Behaviour Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 2

Consumer Behaviour - Essay Example term associated with a male individual who have a strong concern for his appearance, and spent time, money and attention to aesthetic details of his exterior. Such men always concerned about their appearances and will wear nice dresses and will adopt new trends in fashion in their life styles. Quiet often people misinterpret a person with metrosexual attributes as a gay guy; but in reality they have no relationship with such people. Consumerism is a culture spreading all over the world which deals with the relationship between personal happiness and purchasing material and its consumption. Consumer industry, especially the cosmetic industry is changing because of the evolution of metrosexuality. As per the earlier trends, men were least concerned about fashion and their appearances compared to women and the cosmetic industry focussed mainly on the female community earlier. But the changing trends among men’s fashion concepts forced the consumer industry to concentrate in men’s fashion segment also. The active participation of men along with women in the consumer market is a blessing for consumer industry. Men’s Calm Balm (A soothing balm for use after shaving or weather exposure), Men’s No shine (Daily moisturizer for oily to normal skin), Mens Revive Survive (For use throughout the day to revive the complexion), Men’s Scrub Up De Tox (Facial scrub for daily use), Men’s Morning Glory (Daily moisturizer for normal to dry skin) are some of the Dove’s famous skin care products for men. (Professional Skincare Products)  Ã‚  New Pro-age, Energy Glow, Sensitive Skin, Deep Moisture, Dove go fresh are some of the dove’s skin care products for women. (Dove –face care) Men’s Calm Balm is a very good product for men, which contains the healing properties of essential oils tea tree and lemon. It can sooth and heal skin irritation. It has rejuvenating properties of anti oxidant algae mineral nutrients. Moreover, it can protect the skin from UV radiations

Thursday, January 30, 2020

What Are the Benefits and Limitations of Using Second Life in Education Essay Example for Free

What Are the Benefits and Limitations of Using Second Life in Education Essay What are the benefits and limitations of using Second Life in Education? Use of the internet has increased exponentially in recent years, in both developed and developing countries, and educators are searching for ways of utilising the new technology and environment to enhance teaching and learning experiences. Second Life (SL) is a world which exists online. The world is complete with schools, universities, businesses and even criminal activity. As the use and popularity of SL grows, so too does the research regarding its viability as an educational tool. Both the apparent benefits and limitations have been considered in a variety of research papers (Baker, Wentz Woods, 2009; Taylor Chung, 2008). In order to determine whether SL is a useful option for educational institutions, the following aspects will be considered as part of this review: features of online learning, technical considerations and the overall potential uses. Some important features of online learning discussed by the authors include accessibility, popularity, and community. Access to online learning is an important aspect to consider, for both teachers and students. The flexibility of the online environment means that this type of technology can potentially be accessed at many different times and a variety of different places (Baker, Wentz and Woods, 2009). According to Baker et al. (2009), lecturers can make use of the technology by delivering their information via avatars. Taylor and Chung (2008) also consider the popularity of SL, and how this may encourage users to participate in online educational content. Indeed, as Baker et al. (2009) also suggest, students can be not only participants but can also â€Å"create their own content† (p. 60). They add that it is possible for students to meet together, attend discussion online and interact with tutors in an informal and relaxed way, as well as encouraging students who may otherwise be shy to have a ‘voice’. In this way they are building and sharing within their own communities and taking responsibility for their own learning. However, as Taylor and Chung (2008) assert, although SL might be popular, colourful, visual and interactive, students may not enjoy learning in this way, and using SL instead of more traditional methods may actually cause students to forget what they have learned. The authors suggest that the enjoyment of using an avatar and playing in SL may mean students do not focus on the aims of the lesson or lecture. Furthermore, Baker et al. (2009) suggest that there may be limitations of online interaction compared to face-to-face interaction. It is thus important for teacher to consider these issues before using SL. Not only that, there are also a few technical considerations such as cost and time, using SL and also technical knowledge been mentioned by the authors. Baker et al. (2009) claim that the cost of using SL could be differ. Anyone can use it for free yet there are also some charges for people to have a virtual land in SL. According to Baker et al. (2009), people need to consume time to get used to SL. There are initial times to create an avatar, control it, and communicate using computer. Taylor and Chung (2008) clarify that in order to get the benefits; people have to invest money and time for the programming content. Being failed to control avatar, learners might become de-motivated and not willing to use it. By using SL, Baker et al. (2009) remind teachers to consider the objective of online teaching, thinking if it is appropriate for the class or not, can they or the learners be familiarized with the technology and even developed new class management techniques. In fact, Baker et al. 2009) point out that the technical requirement of using SL is higher than basic requirement. Also, there might be some potential issues such as slow connection, slide show’s problem, and security issue. Taylor and Chung (2008) add that there are not a lot of document storages and the computer might get slow due to many graphics. In addition, the authors also insist that there are some overall potentials like new technology, uses in present fields and potential issues using SL in education and training purposes. Baker et al. 2009) reveal that SL is a new technology which launched in 2003, yet some educators already investigating the uses of SL in teaching and learning purposes. Its dominant is SL is not a game like Active Worlds, MMPORGs, and Whyville; it’s a space for social communication. There are some possible issues that people need to be careful as it may have serious effects. Students need to be informed the appropriate usage of the new technology–SL in learning. Besides that, they need to be taught the proper way to behave themselves and protect their privacy while using SL.  Furthermore, an emergency plan should be planned so that when the technology having problems and not performing well, students will not lost temper and cause severe impacts. Taylor and Chung (2008) suggest that SL is a powerful tool in helping training and development sectors. Nevertheless, they also discover that IBM still remains using text-based collaboration which leads to the efficacy of SL. It still has some difficulties to an effective transmission for instruction and content management. As a result, there are lots of potential to be found in the human-computer interaction, usability and instructional design. Through the articles reviewed it seems that the benefits and drawbacks of using SL are equal. Although SL can helps people in learning, people still have to pay much more efforts on it. To get used to SL, people have to spent money, time, and think out the appropriate way to use it wisely. Obviously, SL has the potential to facilitate people’s learning. In fact, to use it or not depends on the further research whether the benefits can overcome the limitations or not.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

The Causes of Crime Essay -- Crime Violence Criminology Essays

The causes of crime seem to be indefinite and ever changing. In the 19th century, slum poverty was blamed; in the 20th century, a childhood without love was blamed (Adams 152). In the era going into the new millennium, most experts and theorists have given up all hope in trying to pinpoint one single aspect that causes crime. Many experts believe some people are natural born criminals who are born with criminal mindsets, and this is unchangeable. However, criminals are not a product of heredity. They are a product of their environment and how they react to it. This may seem like a bogus assumption, but is undoubtedly true. There is a study devoted to finding the causes of crime and what makes people criminals. This study is appropriately called criminology. There are two main theories which criminologists categorize causes of crime, and sometimes an individual would be subject to both their influences. Theories in the first group locate the causes of crime inside the individual, which focus on stress and other psychological factors. Conversely, theories categorized in the second group focus the causes of crime on factors that are out of the control of the certain individual. These influences are sociological. Some psychologists theorize that criminals are born with a predisposition towards mental illness. Even though this is a widely accepted idea, for a mental illness to come out, it has to be catalyzed by the person's environment. In other words, even if a person were born with the biological makings of a criminal, depending on how he was raised and how he lived life would determine if this inherent attribute would manifest. There needs to be an external cause to trigger the characteristic. Many criminologists are stuck on developing biological explanations to the make-up of criminals. These theories are often called "bad seed" theories. They hold that criminals are born and not developed. The most recently discovered "bad seed" theory is that some men are born with an extra Y chromesone that makes them more aggressive (Adams 157). The problem with this theory is if one of these men with the extra chromosome was raised in a way that would inhibit the individual's trait, you would never see the characteristics of this extra chromosome and it would just devalue this theory. Another problem with this theory is that there are criminals who just happen to ... ...ves them the confidence they need to continue their criminal behavior without fear of getting caught. And there are enough people in a city that no matter how you act; you could find people just like you. If you have a tendency to get in trouble a lot, you could easily find someone to encourage your actions. A social status, whether you like it or not, can drag you into or out of a life of crime. A dead-broke bum with no house is forced to steal food in order to stay alive, and steal clothing in order to stay warm. Of course, you could suffer and not break any laws, but the immediate need would usually outweigh the consequences. You may not be literally forced into a life of crime, but it just might be the best choice you have. Being in such need makes stealing seem much more attractive than it would if you had no need to steal. As stated in the preceding paragraphs, criminals are influenced and not born. You can easily infer this on your own, but with the help of this report it seems much more obvious. The most obvious and consistent influence in the development of a person seems to be the environment in which they live in and the influence, or lack thereof, of their parents.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Nissim Ezekiel Treatment of Poetry Essay

Nissim Ezekiel’s poem â€Å"Enterprise† describes a metaphorical journey toward a specific goal. The travelers on this journey begin in a real physical place, a desert, and argue about how to cross this challenging landscape. One of the members of the group, who writes the most stylish prose, goes his own way. The rest of the group is left on its own. Some quit the team. The group is attacked by travelers, and over time become unmoved by anything they witness. Fatigue and the stresses of travel have settled in and many of the members of the group cannot go on. By the fifth stanza, the picture ahead is grim. The enthusiasm has faded and their burdens are heavy. Their vision is clouded with the disintegration of the group and their exhaustion. The well-focused goal presented in the first stanza is lost. The travelers are a disorganized group of aimless wanderers unaware any longer of the original motivation for their expedition. Their observations at this point in the poem are about trivial things. In the last stanza, the travelers reach their destination; however, it is not quite home. Ezekiel concludes that this type of expedition is not a worthy undertaking; living â€Å"at home† with inner satisfaction is the greatest achievement of all. The travelers’ consider their journey and have moments of introspection. They come to the conclusion that their expedition has been neither pioneering or notable for any reason. They had thought their journey would make a mark in history. The only problem is that others have made this journey before. It is nothing new. The journey of â€Å"Enterprise† is a metaphor for life and our focus on the destination as the only means for our goals. Some critics have noted that Ezekiel’s â€Å"Enterprise† is also his attempt to bring together two â€Å"homes†: his place of birth and his journey to a European city. His exploration of the idea of â€Å"home† is sophisticated enough to be compared to the same themes in the poetry of Robert Frost, for example.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Case Of Captain Alden - 846 Words

Furthermore, according to Boyer and Nissenbaum, â€Å"it [was] clear that the girls themselves did not actually know most of the people they named.† This brings out the possibility that the trails were biased towards certain people. For example, in the case of Captain Alden, most of the afflicted girls were unable to recognize him until â€Å"a man standing behind one of the [girls] whispered into her ear.† In this case the girls were clueless on who Alden was until somebody identified him. Interestingly enough, when the girl’s interrogator asked her how she was able to identify Alden she claimed that, â€Å"the man told her so.† This account helps to show how some people could had an influence on the outcome of the trials. When a victim couldn t identify the specter, people around would them bombard the victim with names. Some accounts also seem to suggest that Samuel Parris and his supporters terrorized villagers and even had some controlled over the t rials. Considering that his two daughter were among the first to become â€Å"bewitch† it would make sense for Samuel Parris to take advantage of situation to get certain people out of the way. A closer examination of these cases lead historians to believe that neighborhood tiffs between opposite sides of Salem had a role in the escalation of trials. According to Boyer and Nissenbaum, There were fourteen accused witches who lived within the bounds of Salem (35) Most of the accused were considerate around the eastern side of the village. InShow MoreRelatedThe Open Window, By Hernando Tellez1321 Words   |  6 Pagesliterature from all around the world provide one. The themes of H.H. Munro’s The Open Window, Hernando Tà ©llez’s Just Lather, That’s All, and Alden Nowlan’s The Fall of a City, all relate to humanity, and our roles in society. 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